So Called "Honour" based abuse
"Honour" based abuse (HBA) or "honour" based violence (HBV): ‘So-called honour based violence is a crime or incident, which has or may have been committed to protect or defend the honour or the family and/or community'. (Metropolitan Police Service)
"Honour" based killings: ‘Murders within the framework of collective family structures, in which predominantly women are mutilated, imprisoned, forced to commit suicide and killed for actual or perceived immoral behaviour, which is deemed to have breached the honour codes of a household or community, causing shame.' (Iranian and Kurdish Women's Rights Organisation)
Often HBA/HBV and forced marriage are seen as synonymous, but there are differences. "Honour" based violence and abuse, which may include emotional, psychological, sexual and physical abuse, is a reaction to what is perceived as immoral behaviour that brings shame/izzat/namous/sharaf on the family or community.
These ‘immoral behaviours' include:
- running away, coming home late
- ideological differences between parents and children
- refusing an arranged marriage
- relationships outside marriage
- relationships outside the approved group
- ‘inappropriate' make up or dress
- loss of virginity
- reporting/fleeing domestic abuse, coercive and controlling behaviour, forced marriage
- girls who ‘allow themselves to be raped'
- causing gossip.
Sometimes a rumour about a family member doing one or more of the above is enough to elicit an abusive reaction.
Unlike domestic abuse where it is typically one person abusing another, in cases of HBA and forced marriage the perpetrators can be one or many including:
- father and mother
- brother and sister
- uncles, aunts, cousins
- community members
- bounty hunters/'hit men'
Crimes committed may include:
- false imprisonment or kidnap
- ABH or GBH
- threats to kill
- harassment and stalking
- sexual assault
- female genital mutilation
- forced to commit suicide
For every crime committed there are also numerous incidents of bullying, emotional and psychological abuse. Some victims have very restricted movements and are under constant supervision having little contact with the outside world.
Our guides for DA Champions discuss particular issues that need to be considered in cases of suspected HBA, but one very important thing is that if there is a suggestion of HBA then family, friends and neighbours must NOT be automatically involved in any safety planning. Usually, in domestic abuse cases family, friends and neighbours, once they know of the issues, will rally round to offer support and keep an eye out for problems like calling police if a perpetrator turns up, but in HBA cases it is often very difficult to identify those that could condone or be coerced into accepting what is seen as a way of preserving the community’s heritage or culture. The victim will be able to say whom they do trust but family members may well have split loyalties so the safest course is to try to work outside the community.
- At least 12 murders in the name of honour occur each year in the UK, although past murders are being reviewed to see if they are linked to HBA
- South Asian women in this country are 3 times more likely to commit suicide than their white counterparts
- There are 17,000 reported incidents of HBA or forced marriage in the UK each year
- There are approximately 60 reported incidents concerning HBA or forced marriage in Oxford every year
There is no religious basis to HBA and forced marriage; they are widely condemned by all religious faiths and communities.
Karma Nirvana’s staff and most of its 18 volunteers are survivors of forced marriage and HBA. Tel: 0800 5999 247
Support for Farsi, Kurdish, Arabic and Turkish speaking women, girls and couples. Tel: 0207 920 6490
Kiran Support Services provides safe, temporary accommodation for Asian women and their children escaping domestic violence. Also provides advice, outreach work and resettlement support. Tel: 020 8558 1986 Email- Kiran.email@example.com
Offering specialist advice, information, casework, advocacy, counselling and self-help support for Asian and African-Caribbean women. Services in several community languages. Tel: 0208 571 0800
The SHARAN Project is designed to empower, educate and inspire women who want to actively learn more about the support and choices that are available to them, to provide them with the tools to lead life on their own terms. Tel: 0844 504 3231
The National Centre for Domestic Violence provides a free service to everybody, regardless of age, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation or imigration status. Tel: 0844 8044 999
Provides information, support and advice to victims of stalking and harassment. Tel: 0300 636 0300
Rights of Women works to attain justice and equality by informing, educating and empowering women on their legal rights. Tel: 020 7251 6577
- SafeLives — Your Choice (Spotlight on HBV and Forced Marriage, 2017)
- Association of Chief Police Officers — HBV Information Leaflet
- Association of Chief Police Officers — HBV resource document
- Crown Prosecution Service — Guidance on Identifying and Flagging HBV and forced Marriage Cases
- College of Policing — Approved Professional Practice on HBA and Forced Marriage
Film — A Girl in the River